SEMINARS
The science of ocean predictions and its application to the Mediterranean Sea 
Predictability and Prediction of Monsoons in the Present and the Future Climate 
Largeeddy simulation of particleladen flow  recovering small scales 
On nonhomogeneous incompressible fluids with discontinuous density 
Wave Equations with nonregular Coefficients 
Inhomogeneous incompressible fluids with bounded density and nonLipschitz velocity 
The Complex Physics of Climate Change and
Climate Sensitivity: A Grand Unification 
Computational modeling of complex flows 
Modeling and Simulation of Pulsatile Flow in
Cerebral Aneurysms 
Plumes in nature 
Introduction of climate variability at global and regional scale
with the focusing on the Mediterranean Region 

W
Boundary layers and outer solutions
in Oceanography: mini course 
Part I: Isothermal and heated channel flows with subgridscale dispersion modelling.
Part II: Simple and coaxial jets
byDr. Jacek Pozorski , IMP, Polish Academy of Sciences  Gdansk, Poland
Tuesday Sept. 21 2010, 10.0012.00 , Seminar Room DMI, 3rd Floor DMI
Largeeddy simulation (LES) is increasingly often used in the computation of turbulence, including twophase flows with the dispersed particles (or droplets).
The impact of smallscale eddy structures (not resolved in LES) on particle dynamics and heat transfer remains an open issue.
Modelling of this effect will be addressed, and illustrated with the results for a wellknown benchmark case of turbulent channel flow at Reτ=150, both isothermal and heated at the walls.
Then, the LES results for more computationallydemanding particleladen flow in simple axisymmetric and coaxial jets will be presented and discussed, together with the numerical and multiprocessor implementation issues.
World of Trouble: Voyaging Through Stressed Ecosystems 
Theory and practice of largeeddy simulation of turbulent flow 
Statistical techniques to analyze remotely sensed data of the sea surface: estimation of the scales of variability of the sea surface structure in the Adriatic Sea. 
Phasespace Lagrangian dynamics in fluids 
Are mesoscale eddies in shelf seas due to baroclinic instabilities? 
Conservative semiLagrangian methods 
Gradient dynamics of a regularized nonconvex functional 
Periodic upwelling/downwelling in the Adriatic Sea 
Operator splitting for evolution equations (Short Course) 
Permanent Meanders in the California Current System 
Deep Water Ventilation & Overflow Processes in Southern Ocean 
Turbulent Flows Over Rough Surfaces. 
Hyporheic flows in Rivers: laboratory experiments, models and case studies. Contaminants disperse in natural streams both in the surface flow, including side pockets and dead zones, and in the hyporheic zone, i.e. the interface region between the stream and the groundwater system. Transport through the porous boundary leads contaminants in domains of slow velocity, where filtration and sorption onto the sediment surface may affect significantly their fate. 
by Prof. Francesco Ballio, (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie, Rilevamento sezione Ingegneria Idraulica  Politecnico di Milano) The ∏ theorem and physical modelling in fluid dynamics 1. A simple live demonstration is used to introduce the problem of physical similarity; the matter is discussed within the framework of the ∏ theorem, obtaining the basic rules for the design of nondistorted models. 
By Prof.Alberto Guadagnini, DIIAR, Politecnico di Milano 1. Moment Equations for Prediction of Conditional Mean Flow in Randomly Heterogeneous Aquifers We consider the effect of measuring randomly varying hydraulic conductivities K(x) on one's ability to predict numerically, without resorting to either Monte Carlo simulation or upscaling, steady state saturated flow in bounded domains driven by random source and boundary terms. The aim is to allow optimum unbiased prediction of hydraulic heads, h(x), and fluxes, q(x), by means of their ensemble moments, ‹h(x)›c and ‹q(x)›c, conditioned on measurements ofK(x). These predictors have been shown to satisfy exactly an integrodifferential conditional mean flow equation in which the flux predictor, ‹q(x)›c, is nonlocal and nonDarcian. Here, we show how to develop complementary integrodifferential equations for second conditional moments of head and flux which serve as measures of predictive uncertainty; to obtain recursive closure approximations for both the first and second conditional moment equations through expansion in powers of a small parameter σY which represents the standard estimation error of ln K(x). It is then shown how to solve these equations to first order in σY2 by finite elements on a rectangular grid in two dimensions. In the special case where one treats K(x) as if it was locally homogeneous, and mean flow as if it was locally uniform, one obtains a localized Darcian approximation, ‹q(x)›c ≈ Kc(x)‹h(x)›c in which Kc(x) is a spacedependent conditional hydraulic conductivity tensor. This leads to the traditional deterministic, Darcian steady state flow equation which, however, acquires a nontraditional meaning in that its parameters and state variables are datadependent and therefore inherently nonunique. It further explains why parameter estimates obtained by traditional inverse methods tend to vary as one modifies the database. Localized equations yield no information about predictive uncertainty. A detailed comparison between finite element solutions of nonlocal and localized moment equations, and Monte Carlo simulations, under superimposed meanuniform and convergent flow regimes in two dimensions is presented. An extension of the methodology to model (nonreactive) transport processes in heterogeneous groundwater systems is then presented. 2. Prediction of uncertainty associated with well capture regions in heterogeneous groundwater systems The assessment of the distribution of solutes timeofresidence within an aquifer subject to pumping is of particular interest as extraction wells are commonly used both for drinking water supply and as remediation systems for contaminated aquifers. The delineation of pumping wells protection zones is usually performed by calculating the entire well catchment extent and specific timerelated capture zones. The latter are, in turn, based on the concept of solute residence time. 
Inverse kinetic theory approaches in fluid dynamics Phasespace techniques are well known both in classical and quantum fluid dynamics. However, an interesting development is represented by inverse kinetic theories (IKT), recently constructed both for classical and quantum hydrodynamic equations (*). This involves the formal description by means of classical dynamical systems which permit to advance in time exactly i the relevant fluid fields. In this talk basic features of IKTS's for such systems are reviewed. (*) References: 
Twodimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain Largescale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely twodimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to threedimensional turbulence where larger flow structures collapse into smaller structures. The inverse energy cascade in twodimensional turbulence leads to a selforganization of the flow in large scale vortices. For instance in the Adriatic Sea an array of largesize circulations cells can be observed. 
Left Ventricular Fluid Dynamics The function of the human heart is that of a mechanical pump that receives the low pressure blood from the venous system and ejects it with higher pressure into the arterial system. The heart chambers are surrounded by muscular tissue, the myocardium, that operates in a sequence of active contractions and relaxations. The dynamics of the myocardial tissue deformation and the blood flow inside the heart chambers represent a central issue of the biomechanical research. The left ventricle (LV), from where the oxygenated blood is pushed into the primary circulation, is the most energetic element and plays a central role in the cardiac mechanics as well as in the diagnostic processes of the heart function.

Lagrangian Dispersion in Environmental Applications The scope of the seminar is to illustrate the activity of the research group IDRAAMB, in the analysis of dispersed phases in environmental applications. The analysis is carried out using a very innovative numerical tool, in which the dispersed phase is treated in a Lagrangian way as a swarm of particles moving into an Eulerian turbulent field. The Eulerian field is treated solving the fluid motion equations by the use of Large Eddy Simulation. This approach allows obtaining very accurate results i not dependent on the empirical choice of relevant parameters (i.e. the turbulent diffusivity of the dispersed phase). 
Numerical methods for the NavierStokes equations: Ocean circulation models The purpose of this presentation is to provide an introduction to ocean circulation models and illustrate their mathematical, numerical, and physical formulation. 
By Professor Benoit CushmanRoisin Thayer School of Engineering This first lecture defines the scope of Environmental Fluid Mechanics and illustrates this definition by a few examples. Turbulence and stratification each lead to a dimensionless number measuring its importance. The lecture concludes with a brief review of processes (waves, mixing, convection, etc.) and of systems (rivers, lakes, atmopheric boundary layer, etc.), highlighting which combination of processes occurs in each system. Although the differentialequation approach is essential for the description of fluid flows, there are numerous applications when budget equations for a finite volume provide very useful information with little effort. This lecture describes this approach and illustrates it with a number of environmental examples, including discharge jets, wind turbines and river flow. 
Physical mechanisms of atmospheric flows and turbulence in thermally driven upslope/upvalley winds Atmospheric boundary layer processes and local circulations occurring in mountain environment deserve great interest not only for their peculiar effects on localscale meteorology but also for their interaction with atmospheric mesoscale and synopticscale dynamics. Moreover they variously challenge our understanding due to their inherent spatial complexity, which still can be captured only by means of fine networks of instruments or highresolution modelling including suitable parameterizations. Indeed mountain valleys display structural characteristics (geographic position, shape, sidewall exposition, land cover and use, etc.) which mark the development of typical atmospheric boundary layer phenomena, and in particular of the structure of atmospheric turbulence. 
Air quality assessment and Management in Europe: implications for modelling activity In Europe Air pollution has long been recognized as posing a significant risk to human health and the environment. In 1996 the Air Quality Framework Directive was adopted which established a Community framework for the assessment and management of ambient air quality in the EU. The Framework Directive also provided a list of priority pollutants for which air quality objectives would be established in daughter legislation. There have subsequently been four daughter directives in respect of particular pollutants and a Council Decision to bring about the reciprocal exchange of air quality monitoring information. 
Boundary Intensification of Vertical Velocity in a BetaPlane Basin The buoyancy driven circulation of simple twolayer models on the beta plane is studied in order to examine the role of beta in determining the magnitude and structure of the vertical motions forced in response to surface heating and cooling. Both analytical and numerical approaches are used to describe the change in circulation pattern and strength as a consequence of the planetary vorticity gradient. The physics are quasigeostrophic at lowest order but sensitive to small non quasigeostrophic mass fluxes across the boundary of the basin. 
Particulate plumes in boundary layer with obstacles This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurit transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with nonflat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use nonviscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the nonslip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtl hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of nonviscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of big wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in twophase atmosphere equations.We deal with describing big field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model nearsurface phenomena. 
Sand and waves: Oscillating turbulent boundary layers over a movable bed March 24 2006 at 11.30 at the Seminar Room, ICTP Surface gravity waves generate oscillating currents whose magnitude drops exponentially with depth. In sufficiently shallow water (relative to the wavelength), the horizontal component predicted by the inviscid solution does not vanish at the bottom boundary, which gives rise to a boundary layer, turbulent under most geophysical conditions, extending a few centimeters from the boundary. This layer is usually embedded in the larger boundary layer generated by steady or pseudo steady currents. The combined boundary layer controls the exchange of momentum and mass (sediments, contaminants, etc.) between the bottom of the ocean to the rest of the water column. In this talk we use Large Eddy Simulation as the primary tool to investigate several aspects of the physics of this type of boundary layer, with particular emphasis to sediment entrainment and suspension. Both layers over a hydrodynamically smooth boundary, as well as over ripples are considered. The latter form naturally under moderate waves and introduce several interesting new features to the problem. The work done so far show how modern computational tools developed in the last 20 years can be successfully applied to tackle geophysical problems, and highlights the need for a closer integration of geosciences with basic engineering. 
A Direct Discrete Formulation of Physical Laws February 24 2006 at 11.30 at the Seminar Room, ICTP It is shown that it is possible to give a discrete formulation to the laws of physics, starting directly from experimental laws, i.e. avoiding whatever discretization process of differential equations. This is made possible by the consideration of global variables as the primitive form of all physical variables and not as integrals of field variables on lines, surfaces and volumes. This inversion of role, i.e. global variables as generators of field variables, leads to a general classification diagram of physical variables of every (classical) physical theory and to the introduction of a numerical method, called the "cell method". 
Lessons from Hydrodynamic Turbulence January 24 2006 at 11.30 at the Seminar Room, ICTP It is common to regard turbulence as the "last unsolved problem" in classical physics. Where do we stand after all these years? Have we learnt something of value, both internal to the subject itself and in relation to neighboring problems in Physics? These questions will be considered at the talk. 